In the promotion and application of solar energy, in order to save land resources, facilitate utilization and management, and optimize the system structure, solar photovoltaic-photothermal utilization (small) equipment is generally selected to be installed in buildings directly related to users, and can directly collect sunlight and heat. The roofs, balconies, window sills up and down, or left and right of the resources, and the facades of the building facing the sun, so as to be able to collect them as close as possible, and provide them for users. As a result, an old problem that has plagued the solar industry for many years has arisen: how can solar equipment that is completely exposed outdoors be coordinated and matched with the appearance of the building, and the problem of anchoring installation in coordination with the building.
It is often said that architecture is a silent poem, a three-dimensional painting, a landmark of a city, and an indelible mark implanted in the hearts of residents. The dazzling solar energy collection equipment under the sun is like a hairpin decorated on a girl’s head, earrings hanging from the earlobe, or a necklace or corsage worn on the chest and neck, at least to improve the taste of architectural culture. , Science and technology content, use value, and the finishing touch of the recognizable characteristics of the building can be achieved to improve the quality of architectural modeling and the selling point of the house. The installation of solar energy equipment must not create an uncoordinated and disorderly patchwork impression on the appearance of the building, and it must not give a complete building shape with alternative visual pollution, thereby damaging the urban architectural landscape. Otherwise, the purpose and significance of installing solar energy utilization equipment on the facade of the new building will be completely lost.
That is to say, the integration of solar energy building is not a simple task in which the existing solar energy utilization equipment, no matter what method or means, is installed on the building is a simple task; The specific architectural style and structure of the object are integrated, coordinated, transformed, and even redesigned; as an indispensable organic part of the building, they are jointly constructed into a long-term safe and secure use by the residents of a specific building ; Through targeted integrated innovation, a solar thermal-photovoltaic application new technology and new process can be perfectly realized.
The definition of solar building integration: the so-called solar building integration is to ensure that the solar energy collection equipment is in an ideal working condition, making it a sufficient display on the facade of the building to show the coordination of modern architectural art and new energy energy-saving equipment , It is a neat and orderly, transitional, natural, safe, stable, scientific and rational, organic combination unity that is unified with the environmental tone and connected with the building structure.
According to the requirements of the above definition, the combination of solar energy equipment and buildings, to truly achieve the goal of building integration, there are four roads to choose from:
① In addition to the solar collectors and solar panels that must be exposed in the visible range, all other solar auxiliary system components and energy storage equipment must be technically accessible, hidden and installed.
②Start with the innovation of solar energy collection technology to greatly improve the conversion efficiency of light, heat and photovoltaics. With limited and as little existing roof area as possible, sufficient solar radiation energy for the entire building can be collected; around the building outline Within the visible range, realize all-round invisible and concealed installation of solar energy system equipment.
③Realize the building componentization and standardization of solar energy collection components, so that solar energy collection and utilization equipment truly becomes an integral part of the building structure.
④Go the other way, emphasizing the recognizability of the solar energy system. Under the comprehensive cooperation of the architectural design, develop a solar composite collection device with the same geometric size as the building balcony guardrail (or window sill sunshade) and system integration. A neat and uniform balcony-type (or bayonet-type) solar power-heating system.
It should be said that the comprehensive solution of any one or more of the above four items should be regarded as the technological progress made in building integration and the contribution made to the realization of building energy efficiency goals.
To achieve the goals agreed in the above definitions, solar energy experts and architects must work together to plan and coordinate the technology, approaches, methods, and methods of combining solar energy and architecture, and complete the following under the joint efforts of both parties Three tasks can ensure the realization of the goal of building integration.
① For the roofs, balconies, walls, windows and other parts of the building that can collect solar radiation energy, it is necessary to make overall planning and coordinate arrangements to ensure that the solar energy system can be clean and orderly, scientifically reasonable, safe and stable, and organically configured in a natural transition. .
②The load-bearing anchoring structure and concealed embedded pipe network involved in the collection devices and energy storage equipment of the solar energy system should be integrated into the building structure and water supply and drainage system design, and unified planning, unified design, unified construction, and unified coordinated installation should be implemented.
③The interface standards of the junction between the building structure and the solar equipment and the embedded parts of the concealed project should be coordinated and followed by the two parties in accordance with the unified standards and agreed process specifications.
For new buildings, the realization of the goal of building integration is the result of the joint efforts of both parties; therefore, in the above three tasks, the “four unifications” are indispensable and key steps. For a long time, our solar energy experts have no knowledge of building structure design: many solar energy production companies only have a superficial understanding of how to install or erect it on a flat roof. The complementary combination of the two, there is no more brainstorming at all. And our architects almost never care about how to install solar energy utilization equipment on buildings to help show the essence and taste of architectural works while ensuring that they are efficient, safe, coordinated and long-lasting. The long-term disconnection of the four unifications of such problems in the earth has made this long-existing problem become such a big and difficult technical obstacle as it is today. To truly solve this problem, first of all, the competent government department or industry The organization must set up compulsory supervision, inspection and on-site acceptance procedures to prevent being fooled by fraud. Secondly, it must be clear that the real estate developer must implement the building energy conservation law and the relevant laws and regulations concerning the design and installation of solar water heating systems for civil buildings. The main identity of the legally responsible person. Again, it is necessary to make it clear that the real estate developer will take the lead, hire the solar energy technology design consulting department and the architectural design department, and jointly undertake the unified planning, unified design, unified construction, unified coordinated installation of solar energy and building integration, and Simultaneously check and accept the legal procedures and related technical and economic responsibilities for complete delivery and use.